2017 - Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit & Exhibition
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22-26 October 2017, Fiesta Americana Condesa Cancun All Inclusive Resort, Cancun, Mexico
Almost 400 Abstracts Submitted from 60 Countries
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List of Accepted Abstracts

As of 13/07/2020: (Alphabetical Order)
  1. Barrios Intl. Symp on Sustainable Non-ferrous Smelting and Hydro/Electrochemical Processing
  2. Dodds Intl Symp: on Sustainable Energy Production: Fossil; Renewables; Nuclear; Waste handling , processing, and storage for all energy production technologies; Energy conservation
  3. Gaune-Escard Intl Symp: on Sustainable Molten Salt and Ionic Liquid Processing
  4. Goodall Intl. Symp. on Sustainability of World Ecosystems in Anthropocene Era
  5. Lotter Intl Symp. on Sustainable Mineral Processing: Principles, Technologies and Industrial Practice
  6. Marquis Intl. Symp. on New and Advanced Materials and Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development
  7. Intl. Symp. on Multiscale Material Mechanics and Multiphysics and Sustainable Applications
  8. Intl. Symp. on Advanced Sustainable Iron and Steel Making
  9. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Metals & Alloys Processing
  10. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Aluminum Extraction and Processing
  11. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Secondary Battery Manufacturing and Recycling
  12. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Mathematics Applications
  13. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Surface and Interface Engineering: Coatings for Extreme Environments
  14. Intl. Symp. on Composite, Ceramic and Nano Materials Processing, Characterization and Applications
  15. Intl. Symp. on Environmental, Health, Policy, Legal, Management and Social Issues Related to Metals, Materials and Mineral Processing
  16. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Mining Operations
  17. Intl. Symp. on Synthesis and Properties of Nanomaterials for Future Energy Demands
  18. Intl. Symp. on Rare Earth and Platinum Group Metals: Managing and Processing
  19. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Materials Recycling Processes and Products
  20. Intl. Symp. Surfaces and Interfaces of Sustainable, Advanced Materials (SISAM)
  21. Summit Plenary
  22. GAUNE-ESCARD INTL SYMP: ON SUSTAINABLE MOLTEN SALT AND IONIC LIQUID PROCESSING

    To be Updated with new approved abstracts

    Aggregation Behavior of New Thiazolium-Based Surface-Active Ionic Liquids and Salts - Experimental and DFT Study
    Milan Vranes1; Slobodan Gadzuric1; Snezana Papovic1; Aleksandar Tot1; Marija Bester Rogac2; Jovana Panic1;
    1FACULTY OF SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 2FACULTY OF CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA, Ljubljana, Slovenia;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 135
    Topic: 13

    Two thiazolium-based surface active agents, ionic liquid (SAIL), N-dodecyl-thiazolium bromide and low melting point salt, N-dodecyl-4-methylithiazolium bromide were newly synthesized and their thermal stability were determined by TG and DSC. Antibacterial activity of these SAILs was determined by disc diffusion method on Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aerugonosa and Escherichia coli as well on Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The self-assembly behaviors of newly synhesized SAILs in aqueous solutions were systematically explored. Results of surface tension and conductivity measurements showed that both surfactants display a superior surface activity in aqueous solutions compared to the imidazolium-based SAIL, 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C12mimBr). Thermodynamic parameters of micelle formation were calculated and these parameters were related with results obtained from volumetric measurements. DFT calculations showed that methyl group on the thiazole ring has important role in the formation of micelles.


    Keywords: Conductivity; Density; Ion; Moltensalt; Thermodynamic; Thermophysical;

    Anhydrous Feed Preparation for Molten Salt Electrolysis of Lanthanum Chloride
    William Judge1; Georges Kipouros2;
    1MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, Toronto, Canada; 2MATERIALS ENGINEERING, DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY, Halifax, Canada;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 187
    Topic: 13

    Many of the rare earth metals or their alloys are produced by molten salt electrolysis of their respective chlorides in alkali chloride melts. Perhaps somewhat surprising, one of the most substantial challenges here is the preparation of high-quality anhydrous feed material. Rare earth chlorides are extremely hygroscopic and if dehydration is conducted without sufficient precautions, hydrolysis and formation of hydroxychloride and oxychloride is favoured. The presence of these compounds in the feed material lower the current efficiency, increase the bath viscosity, consume the otherwise inert graphite anodes, and sediment in bottom of the cell, contaminating the metal product. To prevent hydrolysis, a certain partial pressure of hydrogen chloride must be maintained during dehydration, yet without detailed thermodynamic data available for most of the intermediate compounds, its pursuit appears fruitless. The presentation is summarizing an estimation and prediction model for the vapour pressures of rare earth chloride hydrates to determine the thermodynamic conditions for dehydration to proceed without hydrolysis. Thermodynamic data for intermediate hydrates and hydrolytic compounds are deduced from literature data and trends proven in similar systems. Results are presented for the case of lanthanum.


    Keywords: Chloride; Electrolysis; Moltensalt; Neodymium; Thermodynamic;

    Anodic Dissolution and Recovery of Gold and Silver from Waste Electronic Equipment by Using Ionic Liquids
    Ana-maria Julieta Popescu1; Virgil Constantin1; Cristina Donath1; Elena Ionela Neacsu1; Vasile Soare2; Marian Burada2; Ionut Constantin2; Marcelle Gaune-Escard3;
    1ILIE MURGULESCU INSTITUTE OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, Bucharest, Romania; 2NATIONAL R&D INSTITUTE FOR NONFERROUS AND RARE METALS - IMNR, Pantelimon, Romania; 3POLYTECH, Marseille, France;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 102
    Topic: 13

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and contributes significantly to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of precious metals.
    The present work describes the application of ionic liquids (ILs) to selective dissolution and recovery of Au and Ag from the anodic slime obtained by a triple anodic dissolution of cast WEEE. The ionic liquid used (DES type) was choline chloride-ethylene glycol (molar ratio 1:2) at room temperature (250C) and iodine (in a concentration of 0.2 mol dm1) was used as a catalytic agent. The deposition potentials for Au and Ag were determined by cyclic voltammetry. By anodic dissolution and electrodeposition from the cast WEEE we obtained black gold and gray silver deposits. The SEM and EDX analyses reveal that cathodic deposition of >98% for both Au and Ag. This work demonstrates that ILs could be a solution to the selective recovery of precious metals from WEEE.


    Keywords: Electrodeposition; precious metals recovery from WEEE; ionic liquids; SEM;

    Cleaning of Industrial Gases by Ionic Liquids
    Rasmus Fehrmann1; Anders Riisager1; Leonard Schill1; Peter L. Thomassen1;
    1DTU CHEMISTRY, Lyngby, Denmark;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 90
    Topic: 13

    Atmospheric pollution and climate changes are now recognized to be severely influenced by the emission of acidic gasses; for example, NOX, SOX and COX from the combustion of fossil fuels in instances such as power plants, cement factories and ships. Accordingly, these gases have to be effectively removed from flue gasses. Presently, this is mainly achieved by relatively energy intensive and resource demanding technologies via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ammonia, SO2 wet-scrubbing by lime obtaining gypsum and CO2 wet-scrubbing with organic amines. The latter leads to particular concern about, e.g. intensive energy requirements for desorption, corrosion of steel pipes and pumps, CO2 absorption capacity and thermal decomposition of the amine. The structures of ionic liquids (ILs) are well-ordered even in the liquid state with regular cavities which can host selected solute species depending on the IL ion composition or contain reversible binding functionalities. This makes the materials promising for selective, reversible absorption of gaseous pollutants, such as in industrial off-gases. In this work, we demonstrate how more environmental friendly ILs as amino acid based ones can be applied as selective, high-capacity absorbents of CO2, exemplified by a tetraalkylphosphonium prolinate IL. In the context of CO2 removal, ILs are considered environmentally friendly because they are not emitted to the environment due to their negligible vapor pressure. In addition, an imidazolium nitrate IL is also investigated regarding absorption of NO. Few publications deal with possible interferences of other flue gas components with the IL absorbers. Thus we here also investigate the interaction of the selected ionic liquids with SO2, CO2, NO and air. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers like mesoporous silica have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. These materials benefit from low mass transport resistance of the often very viscous ILs by the distribution of the liquid as a thin film (or small droplets) on the surface of the highly porous carrier materials enabling fast absorption/desorption rates of the particular gas to be removed by the SILP absorber. These powderous SILP materials may also be extruded with appropriate binders to multichannel rotating filters that might be installed in the flue gas duct of the industrial unit or used as filters for sweetening of bio- and natural gas by reversible selective gas absorption. The gaseous pollutant is then desorbed and obtained in concentrated form for further processing on site to e.g. commercial grade mineral acids or stored in underground reservoirs.


    Keywords: Energy; Environment; Industry; Materials; Sustainability; Technology;

    Co-Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide and Steam to Hydrocarbons in Molten Carbonate
    Ossama Al Juboori1; George Chen2;
    1THE UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM, Nottingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain); 2UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM, Nottingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 70
    Topic: 13

    Using carbon or fossil fuels in power generation has not been considered a serious issue until recent justification of rising atmospheric temperature as a result of increasing CO2 emission. Technologies that can absorb CO2 from the emissions and, more substantially, convert CO2 economically into useful materials, instead of simply storing the gas underground, are urgently needed. The process and chemical engineering aspects of the conversion of CO2 and water to beneficial gases via a molten salt route have not yet been examined properly other than the chemistry of the conversion itself which was well discussed. This research investigates the feasibility of producing hydrocarbons by the electrochemical reduction of CO2 and water in the ternary molten carbonates Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 of (43.5-31.5-25 mol %) at atmospheric pressure. Various cathodic gases were formed during the electrolysis and the products were analysed using gas chromatography. The effect of molten salt temperature, and applied voltage were also examined. As a significant outcome, olefin hydrocarbon species (between C2 and C5) in addition to methane gas were found rather than parafins by 0.2 % of the whole cathodic gas produced during electrolysis at an applied voltage of 1.5 V and 4300C. The hydrocarbon products were associated with additional amounts of H2 and CO. During the electrolysis at 500 oC and the same applied voltage, the cathodic gasses collected and analyzed showed higher content of products between C5 and C8 (olefins and parafins) despite the decrease of the other hydrocarbon products in the range of (C2 -C4). The effects of CO2/H2O ratio of feed gas on the electrolysis were also discussed in this research. Because the electrolysis was also carried out without the use of any catalyst, the results are promising and encourage further fundamental investigation and technological development.


    Keywords: Carbon; Energy; Mixtures; Sustainability;

    Conductivity Evaluation of (LiCl-KCl)eut. Based Molten Mixtures Containing Rare Earth and Uranium Chlorides
    Alexei Potapov1; Alexander Salyulev1;
    1INSTITUTE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 43
    Topic: 13

    At the nitride spent nuclear fuel (SNF) pyrochemical reprocessing, the SNF components are transferred into the molten LiCl - KCl eutectic and then the components of the mixture are electrochemically separated.The aim of this work is to develop the method to estimate the electrical conductivity of the LiCl-KCl based melts containing rare earth and uranium chlorides. The electrical conductivity is a non-additive property; therefore a simple summation of the conductivities gives a significantly overvalued result. For example, deviations of the electrical conductivity of the molten (LiCl-KCl)eut. + NdCl3 mixture from the additive values increase and reach ~ 80 - 90% as the NdCl3 concentration increases.
    The stronger interaction in the system results in the greater deviation of its properties from the additivity. Systems composed of (LiCl-KCl)eut. and CeCl3, NdCl3, etc., are systems with strong interaction. However, if we for summation to consider binary systems such as ((LiCl-KCl)eut. + CeCl3), ((LiCl-KCl)eut. + NdCl3), ((LiCl-KCl)eut. + UCl3), then their mixtures will form a systems with a weak interaction and the additive conductivity will differ slightly from the real value. For example, to estimate the electrical conductivity of the (LiCl-KCl)eut. - 1.51%CeCl3 +
    + 2.31%NdCl3 + 2.31mol.% UCl3 system, we used data on conductivity of the ((LiCl-KCl)eut. - CeCl3), ((LiCl-KCl)eut. - NdCl3) and ((LiCl-KCl)eut. - UCl3) systems, on which we have reliable experimental data. In this case the additive conductivity, calculated by the above mentioned technique coincides with the experimentally obtained values, within experimental error (�1.5%).
    In the present work different approaches to calculate the electrical conductivity of complex mixtures are considered.


    Keywords: Chloride; Conductivity; Electrochemical; Mixtures; Moltensalt; Neodymium; Potassium; Uranium;

    Electrical Conductivity and Raman Spectra of Molten GaCl3 PCl5 Mixtures
    Alexander Salyulev1; Alexei Potapov1; Emma Vovkotrub1;
    1INSTITUTE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 45
    Topic: 13

    Molten GaCl3 - PCl5 mixtures are of practical interest, for example in new power sources design.
    In this work we first measured the electrical conductivity of GaCl3 - PCl5 mixtures. The measurements were carried out using quartz capillary cells with Ni- or W-electrodes at the input frequency of 10 kHz. For the first time Raman spectra of the mixtures were obtained by the Renishaw U1000 spectrometer with Ar+ - laser. All measurements were carried out in sealed off cells.
    In spite of the fact that upon melting individual GaCl3 and PCl5 salts form molecular melts with a very low conductivity (k < 110-7 S/cm), we found that the conductivity of GaCl3 - PCl5 mixtures is higher by several orders of magnitude (210-3 - 110-1 S/cm at 20-340 C) than that of individual molten GaCl3 and PCl5. This is caused by the interaction of GaCl3 and PCl5 molecules, which results in their ionization and formation of PCl4+ complex cations and GaCl4-, Ga2Cl7- anions.
    Based on spectroscopic data, we found that in the GaCl3 - PCl5 system as the phosphorus pentachloride concentration gradually increases from 0 to 100% the liquid phase composition changes as follows:
    Molecular Ionic Ionic Molecular
    melt melt melt melt
    Ga2Cl6 = PCl4+ + GaCl4- = PCl4+ + Ga2Cl7- = PCl5 .
    Keywords: GaCl3 - PCl5 melts, electrical conductivity, Raman spectra


    Keywords: Chloride; Conductivity; Ion; Mixtures; Moltensalt;

    Electrochemical Behaviors of Uranium and Lanthanide Cations in LiCl-KCl Melt Investigated by Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Methods
    Sang-eun Bae1; Suhee Choi1; Tae-hong Park1; Jong-yun Kim1; Young Hwan Cho1; Jei-won Yeon1;
    1KOREA ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Daejeon, Korea (Republic of [South] Korea);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 164
    Topic: 13

    Pyrochemical process has been considered as one of the options for a recycling technique of spent nuclear fuels. In the pyrochemical process, there exist a number of chemical elements, especially nuclear materials such as uranium, plutonium, and various fission products. In order to successfully accomplish the research for the pyrochemical process, accurate information on the chemical and electrochemical reactions of the elements in the molten salt should be acquired.
    A number of works have been performed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical properties of actinide and lanthanide ions in LiCl-KCl melt. It is well-known that spectroscopic tools such as UV-VIS absorption and laser induced luminescence spectroscopies as well as electrochemical tools such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) methods can give useful information for the chemical and electrochemical behaviors of the actinide and lanthanide ions in the solution. In this work, the spectroscopic and electrochemical methods were employed to investigate the behaviors of the elements in the LiCl-KCl melt. The oxidation state shift of the elements during electrochemical reactions of the uranium and lanthanide cations in LiCl-KCl melt was monitored by using the spectroscopic methods. Many useful electrochemical properties for the elements were collected in LiCl-KCl melt by using electrochemical methods such as CV and RDE. In particular, the RDE measurement could produce very useful parameters such as diffusion coefficients, Tafel slope, exchange current density, electron transfer coefficient, etc. In this presentation, we will show the research progress for the spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements of the actinide and lanthanide cations in the LiCl-KCl molten salt.


    Keywords: Chloride; Electrochemical; Electrodeposition; Lithium; Moltensalt; Potassium; Uranium;

    Electrochemical Utilization of Carbon Dioxide in Molten Salts
    Sergei Kuleshov1; Inessa Novoselova1;
    1INSTITUTE OF GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Kiev, Ukraine;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 101
    Topic: 13

    Despite the severe international policies for carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, it continues to accumulate in the atmosphere at a rapid space. Among the electrochemical processes, the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is considered as one of the most promising ways for converting the vast quantities of negative value CO2 to high added value fuels and chemicals.
    The CO2 gas can be utilized as a precursor of carbon for the high-temperature electrochemical synthesis (HTES) of powders of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) of different structures (carbon tubes, fibers, amorphous carbon) and refractory metals carbides (Mo2C, WC) in molten salts.
    The purpose of the present work is the development of physical-chemical basis of HTES of pointed compounds.
    The electrochemical reduction of tungsten and carbon from their different oxygen-containing compounds, separately and simultaneously, was studied at Pt, GC, W cathodes in the chloride-oxide melts by the method of cyclic voltammetry. Optimum conditions for obtaining of highly dispersed powders of CNM and refractory metals carbides have been found. The properties of produced materials were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman- and ESR spectroscopy, BET and BJH methods.
    Obtained materials may be used as a potential electrocatalyst for the PEM fuel cell application, methanol electrooxidation and hydrogen evolution reaction. The estimation of electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbides with the surface area of 25 m2g-1 was carried out for the reaction of I2 evolution in acid electrolytes.
    Present investigations have shown that it is possible to produce by the electrolytic method the composition mixtures of nanosized powders of refractory metals carbides (Mo2C, WC and W2C) and CNM of different composition with unique properties for electrocatalysis.


    Keywords: Carbon; Compounds; Electrochemical; Electrodeposition; Electrolysis; Environment; Moltensalt; Molybdenum; Nanomaterials; Refractory; Tungsten;

    Electrodeposition of Molybdenum Carbide onto the Surfaces of Disperse Dielectric and Semiconductor Materials
    Viktor Malyshev1; Dmytro Shakhnin2; Angelina Gab1; Alla Suschenko1; Marcelle Gaune-Escard3;
    1UNIVERSITY "UKRAINE", Kyiv, Ukraine; 2V.I. VERNADSKY INSTITUTE OF GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UKRAINE, Kyiv, Ukraine; 3AIX-MARSEILLE UNIVERSITE/POLYTECH, CNRS/IUSTI UMR7343, Marseille, France;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 98
    Topic: 13

    The present work is devoted to determining the conditions of carrying out high-temperature electrochemical synthesis (HTES) on surfaces of high-resistance dielectrics (HRD) and semiconductors (SC)in ionic melts. These considerations are based on the thermodynamic analysis of reactions of diamonds, boron nitride, and silicon and boron carbides with ionic melts, on experimental studies of their electrochemical behavior, and on evaluation of the possibility for using HTES in molten systems.


    Keywords: Carbon; Corrosion; Electrochemical; Electrodeposition; Materials; Molybdenum; Oxygen; Refractory; Thermodynamic;

    Inhibition Properties of Imidazolium Based Ionic Liquids for Copper Corrosion Protection
    Gyongyi Vastag1; Slobodan Gadzuric1; Milan Vranes1; Aleksandar Tot1; Nebojsa Zec1; Abdul Shaban2;
    1FACULTY OF SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 2RESEARCH CENTRE FOR NATURAL SCIENCES, HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Budapest, Hungary;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 119
    Topic: 13

    1-alkyl-3-ethylimidazolium bromide ionic liquids (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl and octyl) were investigated experimentally and theoretically as a potential inhibitors of copper corrosion in acidic media. These ionic liquids are selected to study an effect of the alkyl chain length at the position N-3, since so far only ionic liquids with different alkyl substituents at the position N-1 were investigated. An improved inhibitory properties of the investigated ionic liquids against corrosion of copper in acidic solution at the given conditions are confirmed. Based on the obtained Fukui functions influence of inductive effect of ethyl/methyl group on the inhibitory activity is also discussed.


    Keywords: Copper; Corrosion;

    Ion-Specificity in Atmospheric CO2 Capture by Diamino Carboxylate PILs; Effect of Diluents
    Tamas Oncsik1; Benjamin Mitschke2; Vijayaraghavan Ranganathan1; Douglas Macfarlane2;
    1MONASH UNIVERSITY, Clayton, Australia; 2MONASH UNIVERSITY, Melbourne, Australia;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 188
    Topic: 13

    Sharply rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one of the biggest environmental concerns facing our civilization, resulting in an increasing importance of alternative modes of capturing this gas arising from anthropogenic emissions. Numerous materials have been proposed to capture and convert carbon dioxide into more precious materials, however none of these offers an energy efficient process. An alternative industrial method which would be appropriate in every respect is still lacking.
    In the present research project, several diamino carboxylate protic ionic liquids (PILs) were synthesized and tested for CO2 capture. Capacities as high as 16 %w/w are observed; this is well above the industrial standard monoethanolamine (MEA)/water mixture. Besides the neat ionic liquids, the effects of diluents such as water, the corresponding parent amine and MEA on the absorption capacities were investigated. IR and NMR spectroscopies were employed as analytical techniques to confirm the behavior of the different systems.
    Varying the amino-functionalities, as well as the alkyl chain length of the carboxylate anions, results in different absorption behavior where several trends were observed. Increasing the size of the anion produces a decrease in the absorption capacity. It was interesting to note that with addition of water, the trend remains the same in the case of the different anions; however, a systematic decrease in uptake indicates non-favorable conditions. PILs containing excess amine show higher uptakes, in contrast to the neat, which can be explained by the increased basicity of the reaction media. Addition of MEA diminishes the ion-specificity in case of the different cations, which can be attributed to the competing reactions between the CO2 and the two different amines in each system.
    The results generated from this project may help in understanding the CO2 capture mechanisms and be relevant in the development of novel type of absorbents for both flue gas capture and also future large-scale atmospheric capture technologies.


    Keywords: Carbon; Energy; Environment; Industry; Ion; Materials; Mixtures; Sustainability; Technology;

    Maximum on Molten TeCl4 Electrical Conductivity Polytherm
    Alexander Salyulev1; Alexei Potapov1;
    1INSTITUTE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 44
    Topic: 13

    It is assumed that electrical conductivity polytherms of molten salts should pass through a maximum if the measurements were carried out up to sufficiently high temperatures. However, due to the experimental difficulties, the maxima were found only in a limited number of molten salts. The high vapor pressures over the salts (tens atmospheres) at high temperatures are the main obstacle at measurements.
    In this work, we constructed a quartz cell of capillary type, specifically designed to measure electrical conductivity at high temperatures and pressures. Using the cell we measured the electrical conductivity of molten TeCl4 through a temperature range from 536 K to 761 K, i.e. 106 degrees above the normal boiling point of the salt and 93 degrees above the maximum temperature reported in previous studies.
    The experimental points were approximated by the following equation:
    κ = 1.5946�10-2 - 2.1901�10-3T + 7.5740�10-6T2 - 5.6833�10-9T3, S/cm
    For the first time the maximum on the conductivity polytherm of molten TeCl4 was experimentally found. κmax = 0.245 S/cm. Both at heating and at cooling, the maximum was recorded at 705 K.
    The activation energy of electrical conductivity of molten TeCl4 decreases from 20.5 kJ/mol at 536 K to zero near 705 K and then to -7.5 kJ/mol at 761 K.
    The reasons for the appearance of maxima on the conductivity polytherms of molten tellurium tetrachloride are discussed. In general, the appearance of conductivity maxima probably is connected to the different temperature dependence of ions mobility, density and ionization degree of the salt molecules.


    Keywords: Chloride; Conductivity; Moltensalt;

    Physicochemical and Electrochemical Properties of Dicyanamide Based Ionic Liquids with &amp;#947; Butyrolactone as Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries
    Slobodan Gadzuric1; Nebojsa Zec1; Milan Vranes1; Marija Bester Rogac2; Nikola Cvjeticanin3;
    1FACULTY OF SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 2FACULTY OF CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3FACULTY OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 118
    Topic: 13

    Due to the favorable physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs), such as negligible vapor pressure, non-flammability, biodegradability and recyclability, they became interesting for a wide range of applications as potentially green solvents associated with little waste, risk and hazard problems. Since the ionic liquids are essentially ionic conductors, their utilization as novel electrolytes for electrochemical devices, such as lithium-ion batteries has also been subject of intense studies. Exchange of common organic solvents by ILs can enhance the safety of lithium-ion batteries. The high viscosity of ILs, which is a limiting factor for their practical application can be overcome by mixing ILs with appropriate molecular solvents.
    Ionic liquids with dicyanamide anion (DCA) were investigated due to their properties such as low melting point and low viscosity, efficient mass transport and a high electrical conductivity. Due to the coordinating ability of the DCA anion, metal salts are often better soluble in dicyanamide based ionic liquids. Also, they are not moisture sensitive and have wide electrochemical window which makes them good candidates for electrochemical devices.
    Molecular liquid y-butyrolactone (GBL) has a high boiling point, low melting point and low vapor pressure. The GBL is also a non-corrosive liquid suitable for electrochemical cells operating over a wide temperature range for a long time. These properties make GBL a good solvent candidate to be used to improve volumetric and transport properties of ILs. Thus, GBL is usually applied as a solvent in the new generation of lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical devices since the polarity of GBL provides excellent solvation of lithium ions and the increasing conductivity.
    Density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of [BMPYR][DCA] and [BMIM][DCA] binary mixtures with GBL were examined in the temperature range from (273.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. The results are compared with those obtained in our previous studies of the systems with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (NTf2) based ionic liquids containing the same cations. After that, lithium salt was added at the appropriate IL-GBL mixtures and physicochemical properties, electrochemical and thermal properties were investigated. The systems with DCA show higher values of electrical conductivity, lower viscosities and better electrochemical and thermal stability compared with NTf2 based ionic liquids. The most suitable ternary mixtures for the application as the electrolyte in lithioum ion batteries were tested together with anatase TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) electrode. Also, cyclic voltammetry experiments are performed at different temperatures and scan rates.


    Keywords: Characterization; Conductivity; Density; Lithium; Solvation; Thermodynamic; Viscosity;

    Real-Time Monitoring of Metal Ion Concentration in LiCl-KCl Containing Multi Component
    Suhee Choi1; Sang-eun Bae1; Tae-hong Park1;
    1KOREA ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Daejeon, Korea (Republic of [South] Korea);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 163
    Topic: 13

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) includes a significant amount of unreacted uranium with high-level radioactive fission products. Pyroprocess has attracted much attention for recovering the unreacted uranium and useful actinides and for reducing the volume of the high-level radioactive wastes. The main steps in the pyroprocess are electrorefining and electrowinning, where the U and actinide elements are recovered from the SNF. It is very important to monitor the concentrations of actinide and lanthanide ions during the operation of the process because the SNF includes nuclear materials. We previously reported that an electric charge obtained from a repeating chronoamperometry (RCA) technique was linearly proportional to the concentration of the neodymium up to 9 wt%. In this work, we applied the RCA technique for the measurement of the concentration of the uranium ion in LiCl-KCl melts containing multi-ions, which likely resembled a real reaction medium in the pyroprocess. We chose uranium, magnesium, and lanthanum as representatives for actinides and lanthanides. In particular, magnesium was selected as a surrogate of plutonium because standard redox potentials of magnesium and plutonium are similar. We measured apparent reduction potential of three elements using cyclic voltammetry (CV) before applying RCA. According to CV results, we carried out the RCA measurements of two-component and three-component systems with the electrodeposition at potentials of -1.7V, -2.05V, and -2.3V for U, Mg, and La, respectively, and the dissolution at a potential of -1V. Sequential electrodeposition and dissolution were repeatedly performed and the passed charges of the U dissolution increased linearly with the concentrations up to 9 wt% in the both two-component and three-component systems. The electric charge of Mg and La dissolution increased linearly with concentration up to 5wt%. Therefore, the RCA technique enabled the determination of the metal ion concentration in multi-component LiCl-KCl melts, demonstrating a potential for on-line monitoring of metal ion in the pyroprocess.


    Keywords: Electrochemical; Mixtures; Moltensalt; Uranium;

    Relation of Thermodynamic Data with Periodic Law
    Valery Vassiliev1; Valery Lysenko1; Marcelle Gaune-Escard2;
    1LOMONOSSOV MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY, Moscow, Russian Federation; 2POLYTECH, Marseille, France;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 157
    Topic: 13

    The purpose of this work is to apply the "tetrad-effect" concept to the analysis, correction and prediction of thermodynamic data for lanthanides (Ln), this "tetrad-effect" being related to the 4f-electrons therein (Ln: La-Lu ; atomic numbers: 57-71). The standard thermodynamic parameters in the solid state also obey the same concept for binary compounds of lanthanides with other elements of the Periodic Table. If the tetrad-effect is observed to be related to structural parameters in isostructural compounds (such as unit cell volume or shortest distances between the Ln-second element atoms), this phenomenon should also be extended to the other physicochemical properties of solids. Should this tetrad-effect of physical and chemical properties not be observed in some isostructural lanthanide compounds, this might indicate an experimental inaccuracy in the determination of these properties.
    Available information on the thermodynamic properties of lanthanide compounds is usually limited due to great experimental difficulties in the investigation of lanthanide systems, difficulties due to their high reactivity (especially, light lanthanides) and their instability in the air. Typically, lanthanide alloys decompose into Ln2O3 and free nanoparticles of the second component when coming into contact with atmospheric air. The use of the tetrad-effect concept can facilitate the prediction of lacking thermodynamic data for the lanthanide compounds [1,2].
    The standard entropies and entropies of formation of lanthanide compounds are the thermodynamic functions the most sensitive to tetrad-effect, because they are the most susceptible to be influenced by the 4f-electrons of lanthanides.
    As an example, we used the tetrad-effect concept for the analysis and prediction of the standard entropies of Ln2X3 (X=O, S, Se, Te) solid phases, but this approach can also be applicable to other classes of Ln compounds such as LnN, LnB2, LnB4, LnB6, LnF3 and other compounds. The tetrad-effect concept gives us the ability to develop a solid state chemistry theory for lanthanide alloys. We have demonstrated that the concept of tetrad effect and the symmetrical function: a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a4x4 (ai are the fitting parameters and x=(N - NGd), where N is the atomic number of lanthanideandNGdis the atomic number ofGd) can be used successfully for the analysis and prediction of the standard entropies at 298 K of solid lanthanide compounds. Experimental and calculated standard entropies at 298 K are given for the Ln2O3, Ln2S3, Ln2Se3, Ln2Te3 solid compounds.


    Keywords: Compounds; Materials; Metals; Phase; Thermodynamic;

    Selective Extraction of Cu(II) by using a New Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Task Specific Ionic Liquids with Salicylate Anion
    Tatjana Trtic Petrovic1; Slobodan Gadzuric2; Milan Vranes2; Aleksandra Dimitrijevic3; Jelena Djordjevic1; Nikola Zdolsek3; Aleksandar Tot4;
    1VINCA INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR SCIENCES, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 2FACULTY OF SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 3VIN&#269;A INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR SCIENCES,UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 4FACULTY OF SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 175
    Topic: 13

    Ionic liquids (ILs) represent a new group of highly potential solvents due to their remarkable features such as negligible vapor pressure at room temperature, high thermal stability, variable viscosity and tunable physicochemical properties by selecting the cation and anion combination. The water immiscible imidazolium based IL was the first applied for the biphasic metal extraction and still remains the most frequently employed system for this task. In this work task, specific water miscible ionic liquids (ILs) were synthetizes and applied for extraction of the selected heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd).
    Four ILs have been synthetized and characterized: 1-butyl-3-methyl salicylate ([bmmim][Sal]), 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methylimidazolium salicylate ([HO(CH2)3mim][Sal]), 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HO(CH2)3mim][Cl]) and 1-(4-hydroxy-2-oxybutyl)-3-methylimidazolium salicylate ([HO(CH2)2O(CH2)2mim][Sal]). The phase behavior of the ternary systems (IL+K3PO4+H2O) was studied, and conditions for metal extraction were optimized.
    The partition coefficients of the targeted heavy metals in the investigated aqueous biphasic systems, defined as the ratio of the concentration of the metal ion in the IL-rich and in the salt-rich aqueous phases, were determined. It was found that [bmmim][Sal] selectively extracted Cu(II). The ABS based on [bmmim][Sal] were applied for selective extraction of Cu(II) from waste water from copper mine Bor.


    Keywords: Copper; Environment; Metals;

    Specific Electrical Conductivity in Solid and Molten CsH2PO4 and Cs2H2P2O7 A Potentially New Electrolyte for Water Electrolysis at ~225-400 C
    Aleksey Nikiforov1; Rolf Berg2; Niels Bjerrum3;
    1TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; 2TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, Lyngby, Denmark; 3TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE, Lyngby, Denmark;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 197
    Topic: 13

    Water electrolysis represents an attractive way of converting surplus electrical energy into hydrogen by balancing the electric grid when an increasing fraction of the power input originates from fluctuating renewable sources. Excess energy storage using fuels such as synthesis gas and methanol in electrochemical cells operating at intermediate temperature have several advantages, among which are: improved catalytic activity, effective use of waste heat, and prevention of permeability through the electrolyte. Cesium dihydrogen phosphate conductivity would be one of the key parameters directly influencing the performance of water electrolyser. Therefore the specific conductivity of this electrolyte should be carefully characterized, as it depends on several parameters, such as temperature, the exact chemical composition of the electrolyte, and humidity. All these parameters are reflected in the associated water vapor pressure above the salt. In this work, the conductivity of solid state and molten CsH2PO4 was carefully examined in the temperature interval 220 - 400 C with 2 C steps and under its own vapor pressure of H2O in a sealed ampoule system. Additionally, conductivities of mixtures composed of CsH2PO4 and different contents of water and/or CsPO3 were examined and compared with values corresponding to pure CsH2PO4. H-cells fabricated from quartz were used to determine the conductivity of the synthesized CsH2PO4 and mixtures of it with water or CsPO3. Molten CsH2PO4 above 347 C and under its own vapor pressure represents a liquid with an extremely high conductivity of 0.2 S*cm-1. By further heating from that temperature the conductivity still increases until it reaches values above 0.25 S*cm-1 at 400 C. This increase in conductivity from below 0.1 S*cm-1 below 347 C (solid state) to 0.25 S*cm-1 at 400 C (molten state) opens new perspectives for possible applications as electrolyte in energy conversion systems at elevated temperatures.


    Keywords: Characterization; Compounds; Conductivity; Energy; Environment; Materials; Sustainability; Tungsten;

    Study of the Influence Alkaline Earth Metal Cations on the Electrochemical Behavior of the Redox Couple Nb(V)/Nb(IV) in Alkali Halide Melt
    Sergey Kuznetsov1; Darja Vetrova1;
    1INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY, KOLA SCIENCE CENTRE RAS, Apatity, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 84
    Topic: 13

    The aim of the present investigation was the study of charge transfer kinetics for the redox couple Nb(V)/Nb(IV) in the NaCl-KCl (equimolar mixture)-NaF(10 wt.%)-K2NbF7 melt and the estimation of the alkaline earth metal cations influence on the standard rate constants of charge transfer (ks) for this redox couple.
    The redox process Nb(V) + e- <-> Nb(IV) in the (NaCl-KCl)eq.-NaF (10 wt %)-K2NbF7 melt was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The standard rate constants of charge transfer for the redox couple Nb(V)/Nb(IV) were calculated based on the Nicholsons equation.
    Influence of strongly polarizing cations of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ on the standard rate constants of charge transfer for the redox couple Nb(V)/Nb(IV) was studied. It was found that addition of alkaline earth metal cations to the initial alkali chloride-fluoride melt resulted in increasing of ks up to the certain mole ratio of Me2+/Nb(V), which was inversely proportional to the ionic potential of cations. The increase of ks is connected with the substitution of Na+ and K+ cations by strongly polarizing cations in the second coordination sphere of niobium complexes that led to increasing of the bond distance between Nb and F ligands and decreasing of niobium fluoride complexes strength.
    It was determined the linear dependence of ks on ionic potential of alkaline earth metal cations and the maximum value was obtained for complexes with outer sphere cation of magnesium.
    Acknowledgments
    The work was financially supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (15-03-02290_a).


    Keywords: Electrochemical; Moltensalt;

    Synthesis of Mesoporous Materials in Molten Electrolyte
    Evgeniya Nikitina1; Nikolay Tkachev1; Natalja Kazakovtseva1; Eduard Karfidov1; Mikhail Maikov1;
    1INSTITUTE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 54
    Topic: 13

    Mesoporous substances are used as catalysts, adsorbents, sensors, materials for optics, electronics and medicine. They are highly structured to 3-10 nm diameter pore level, which suggests wide horizons of the use of metal nano foams and composites based on them. Vast field of research in this area includes variation of the composition, thickness of the oxide layer, control and management functionality and geometry of the pores.
    Our aims are to understand the processes, which occur in the selective dissolution in a molten salt electrolyte, and preparation of a porous material. Copper alloys having higher electrical and thermal conductivity to more active ingredients such as zinc and aluminum, are promising targets for the study of the synthesis and selective dissolution with developed surface structures and metallic conductivity. Use of molten salts as an electrolyte in the selective anodic dissolution of metallic materials will prevent application of aqueous solutions and will significantly intensify the dissolution process due to the high temperature.
    We have obtained new experimental data on the anode selective dissolution of copper alloys with zinc and nickel in molten alkali halides at different temperatures. Gravimetry, open circuit potential methods and CVA were performed. The structure of alloys was analyzed by SEM and BET methods.


    Keywords: Copper; Electrochemical; Electrolysis; Materials; Metals; Moltensalt;mesoporous materials, selective dissolution, alloy, halide melts

    The Impact of Melting and Rapid Cooling of Smelting Slag on Some of its Properties
    Srdjana Magdalinovic1; Zoran Markovic2; Florian Kongoli3;
    1INSTITUTE FOR MINING AND METALLURGY BOR, Bor, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 2UNIV. OF BELGRADE - TECHNICAL FACULTY BOR, SERBIA, Bor, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia); 3FLOGEN TECHNOLOGIES INC., Mont-Royal, Canada;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 181
    Topic: 13

    The technogenic copper deposit 'Depo slag l " is located in the industrial smelter and refining copper company RTB Bor. Mineable reserves amounted to 9,190,940 t of slag with an average copper content of 0.715%. A sample of this Depo I is melted in the furnace and then in the course of discharging in a thin stream a jet of water cooled wherefrom the small - granular pieces. The characteristics of raw and remelted slag were compared. The paper presents: chemical analysis, SEM - EDS analysis, Bond's work index in the mill with balls and bars, kinetics experiments of grinding and flotation of copper bearing particles, depending on the fineness in the range of 60 - 95% -0,075 mm.


    Keywords: Characterization; Copper; Flotation; Sustainability;

    The prespect of Al production with Inert Anode
    Yihan Liu1;
    1NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY, Shenyang City, China;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 108
    Topic: 13

    At present, the Hall-H��orult process is still extensively used in aluminium electrolysis, there are many problems in carbon anode, such as serious environmental pollution, high-quality carbon consumption and so on. Developing a new type inert anode to replace traditional carbon anode is an effective way to solve these problems. In view of its properties: excellent chemical stability, good corrosion resistance in Na3AlF6-Al2O3 molten salt, small swell-coefficient at high temperature and so on, NiFe2O4 based cermet is one of the most promising industrial inert anode materials, which have been researched widely by scholars all over the world.
    As for ceramic materials, the NiFe2O4, which possesses the structure of AB2O4 is the idealization inert anode ceramic matrix material could be widely used in Al electrolysis industry because it's good corrosion resistance and excellent stability in thermal and chemical composition. However, due to its bad conductivity, the NiFe2O4 can not satisfy the requirement that is the inert anode material must have enough good electrical conductivity. In order to overcome this defect, it is necessary to add some metal component which having good conductivity into the NiFe2O4 to fabricate the cermet material as an inert anode.


    Keywords: Electro Winning of Aluminium ; Molten Salt Chemistry and Thermodynamics;

    The Thermal Decomposition of Sodium Carbonate and Calcium Carbonate in Molten Sodium Chloride and the Molten Salt Synthesis of Sodium Silicate and Calcium Silicate.
    Rashed Sheikh1;
    1UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON, London, United Kingdom (Great Britain);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 189
    Topic: 13

    It is well-known that the global average surface temperature of the earth has risen by ~0.8C during the 20th century. This can be attributed to an increase in quantities of greenhouse gasses (GHG's) in the atmosphere, arising from anthropogenic sources and changing land use. This temperature rise has been linked to major catastrophes, such as hurricanes, heat waves, floods, droughts, evaporation of lakes, rising sea levels and melting of ice glaciers. One of the main contributors to GHG emissions is energy-intensive industries (EIIs), such as the cement process. This process emits between 0.65-0.92 kg tonne-1 of carbon dioxide (CO2) of cement and accounts for 5% of global CO2 emissions annually. This is mainly due to the high temperatures required to achieve its process conditions (~1500C), emitting CO2 directly (from limestone decomposition) or indirectly (through electricity usage). One method of reducing such emissions could be molten salt synthesis (MSS), which involves dissolving reactants in a molten salt and reacting in solution. MSS has proven to be an alternative route to many compounds; therefore in our project, we investigated the synthesis of the cementitious compounds; calcium metasilicate (Ca2SiO4) and sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) in sodium chloride (NaCl). Our results suggested a-Ca2SiO4 and a-Na2SiO3 could be produced at 830C, however other compounds such as Ca3SiO5 required higher temperatures (>1100C). The dissolution of the reactants; silicon dioxide (SiO2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in molten NaCl were also investigated at 830C and our results suggested that Na2CO3 and CaCO3 decomposed to CO2, calcium oxide (CaO) and sodium oxide (Na2O), and SiO2 only dissolved with a limited solubility. This suggests that molten salts could be suitable media to reducing CO2 emissions from such processes and hence improve the overall energy requirement. These MSS reactions were also depicted on predominance diagrams, to illustrate how these compounds could be produced using electrolytic methods.


    Keywords: Chloride; Electrochemical; Energy; Moltensalt; Oxides; Processing; Solvation;

    Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Lanthanide(III) Halide - Alkali Metal Halide Systems
    Leszek Rycerz1; Anna Danczak1; Ida Chojnacka1; Marcelle Gaune-Escard2;
    1WROCLAW UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Wroclaw, Poland; 2AIX-MARSEILLE UNIVERSITE/POLYTECH, CNRS/IUSTI UMR7343, Marseille, France;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 139
    Topic: 13

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of the LnX3-MX binary systems (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs; Ln = lanthanide; X = halide) were measured by calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and capillary methods. These systems are characterized by negative enthalpies of mixing. The minimum of molar mixing enthalpy is shifted towards the alkali halide-rich composition and located in the vicinity of x(LnX3) of about 0.3-0.4. Ionic radius of the alkali metal as well as ionic radius of lanthanide and halide influence the magnitude of mixing enthalpy as well as the minimum position. Absolute value of mixing enthalpy increases with decrease of lanthanide ionic radius and decreases with increase of halide ionic radius. The dependence of interaction parameter , which represents energetic asymmetry of the melts under investigation, on composition can be undoubtedly ascribed to the formation of LnX63- octahedral complexes in the systems under investigation. The existence of these complexes is confirmed by electrical conductivity measurements of LnX3-MX liquid mixtures.
    Temperatures and molar enthalpies of phase transitions of the M3LnX6 congruently melting compounds (M = K, Rb, Cs) were determined and compared. This comparison showed that M3LnX6 compounds could be divided into two groups: compounds, which are formed at higher temperatures from M2LnX5 and MX, and compounds, which are stable or metastable at ambient temperature. The heat capacities of M3LnX6 compounds were determined and fitted by equations, which provides a satisfactory representation up to the temperature of the Cp discontinuity. Electrical conductivity of solid phase of M3LnX6 compounds correlates well with their heat capacity. The specific behavior of the heat capacity and electrical conductivity dependence on temperature of solid M3LnX6 compounds is undoubtedly connected with disordering of cationic sublattice formed by alkali metal cations.


    Keywords: Moltensalt; Phase; Thermodynamic;