2017 - Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit & Exhibition
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22-26 October 2017, Fiesta Americana Condesa Cancun All Inclusive Resort, Cancun, Mexico
Almost 400 Abstracts Submitted from 60 Countries
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List of Accepted Abstracts

As of 07/04/2020: (Alphabetical Order)
  1. Barrios Intl. Symp on Sustainable Non-ferrous Smelting and Hydro/Electrochemical Processing
  2. Dodds Intl Symp: on Sustainable Energy Production: Fossil; Renewables; Nuclear; Waste handling , processing, and storage for all energy production technologies; Energy conservation
  3. Gaune-Escard Intl Symp: on Sustainable Molten Salt and Ionic Liquid Processing
  4. Goodall Intl. Symp. on Sustainability of World Ecosystems in Anthropocene Era
  5. Lotter Intl Symp. on Sustainable Mineral Processing: Principles, Technologies and Industrial Practice
  6. Marquis Intl. Symp. on New and Advanced Materials and Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development
  7. Intl. Symp. on Multiscale Material Mechanics and Multiphysics and Sustainable Applications
  8. Intl. Symp. on Advanced Sustainable Iron and Steel Making
  9. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Metals & Alloys Processing
  10. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Aluminum Extraction and Processing
  11. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Secondary Battery Manufacturing and Recycling
  12. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Mathematics Applications
  13. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Surface and Interface Engineering: Coatings for Extreme Environments
  14. Intl. Symp. on Composite, Ceramic and Nano Materials Processing, Characterization and Applications
  15. Intl. Symp. on Environmental, Health, Policy, Legal, Management and Social Issues Related to Metals, Materials and Mineral Processing
  16. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Mining Operations
  17. Intl. Symp. on Synthesis and Properties of Nanomaterials for Future Energy Demands
  18. Intl. Symp. on Rare Earth and Platinum Group Metals: Managing and Processing
  19. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Materials Recycling Processes and Products
  20. Intl. Symp. Surfaces and Interfaces of Sustainable, Advanced Materials (SISAM)
  21. Summit Plenary
  22. DODDS INTL SYMP: ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION: FOSSIL; RENEWABLES; NUCLEAR; WASTE HANDLING , PROCESSING, AND STORAGE FOR ALL ENERGY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES; ENERGY CONSERVATION

    To be Updated with new approved abstracts

    A New Paradigm for Environmental Safety Management of Chemical Industry in Korea : Offsite Risk Assessment
    Kyoshik Park1;
    1MYONGJI UNIV., Yongin-si, Korea (Republic of [South] Korea);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 182
    Topic: 17

    Korea experienced a massive chemical dispersion disaster on September 27, 2012, which occurred at the Gumi National Industrial complex in the southern city of Korea. About 8 tons of hydrogen fluoride gas leaked as the valve of tank lorry was opened due to an operatorˇŻs mistake, resulting in 5 casualties and about 3,600 medical treatment, causing 17.7 billion KRW of damage to enterprises, and spoiling the crops on 323.8ha of land. The accident had triggered new chemical management policy in Korea; The Revised Chemicals Control Act introduced Korea Risk Management Plan (K-RMP) and Off-site Risk Assessment (ORA) to improve safety management system for habitat and environment. Any company which manufactures, uses, or stores hazardous chemicals should submit ORA report to a governmental agency, while K-RMP only applies to the Precautionary Chemicals of Accidents (PCAs). The purpose of the ORA is to estimate the risk level of each chemical facility effect to habitat and environment. It implies gathering and analyzing information related to facility, toxicity, population, and preliminary hazard assessment is an essential process. Consequence analysis and likelihood estimation results are also needed to assess the risk. K-RMP is similar to that of the U.S., while K-RMP reinforces the emergency response planning.


    Keywords: Engineering; Environment; Gas; Industry; Technology;

    An Integrated Information Architecture for Lifecycle Prognostics and Reliability Improvement
    Wes Hines1; Zach welz1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, Knoxville, United States;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 56
    Topic: 17

    Energy system on-line-monitoring is becoming a crucial component of improving safety, reliability, and profitability. The Holy Grail is the development prognostic methodologies to accurately predict the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of a system or component for predictive maintenance and effective risk mitigation. Calculating precise RUL estimates requires both system specific maintenance information and performance data to develop representative lifecycle models. Current conventional prognostic methods focus on process data and do not utilize maintenance data to directly influence the modeling and data analysis. However, equipment maintenance impacts future system degradation and is dependent on the maintenance actions taken. Differences in the amount of degradation removed from a system are common for repaired equipment compared to replacements. This talk discusses methods of incorporating maintenance information into Lifecycle Prognostics and the effect it has on prediction error and uncertainty compared to maintenance independent models.
    Conventional Lifecycle Prognostics is a term used when the RUL is seamlessly predicted from beginning of component life (BOL) to end of component life (EOL). When a component is put into use, the only information available may be past failure times, and the predicted failure distribution can be estimated with reliability methods such as Weibull Analysis (Type I). As the component operates, it begins to consume its available life. This life consumption may be a function of system stresses, and the failure distribution should be updated (Type II). When degradation becomes apparent, this information can be used to again improve the failure distribution estimate (Type III) of the specific component.
    The results of integrating past maintenance information into conventional lifecycle prognostics indicate that maintenance specific models produce significantly lower prediction error and model uncertainty. This serves as a proof of concept for investigation into more effective ways to utilize maintenance data in prognostic modeling, while also emphasizing the importance of digital maintenance records in industry.


    Keywords: Energy; Optimization;

    Analysis of Sustainable Electricity Generation System Inside a Directional Wellbore from Low-Enthalpy Geopressured Geothermal Brine Reservoir
    Mayank Tyagi1; Ildar Akhmadullin2;
    1LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY, Baton Rouge, United States; 2BATON ROUGE COMMUNITY COLLEGE, Baton Rouge, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 48
    Topic: 17

    Economically viable geothermal resources can be a sustainable and green source
    for energy production if proven to be able to compete in terms of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) generation from the fossil fuel or coal-fired power plants. Utilization of such geothermal resources is usually limited and at times restricted due to perceived economical risks and limits posed on the engineering design by the reservoir temperature and depth. Thus far, low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs (typical reservoir temperature less than 350F) are not deemed commercially attractive due to many factors that impact the return on investment for such projects. Among these factors are the depth and relatively low-enthalpy (or reservoir temperature) of the resource that increases the cost of drilling deeper wells as well as reduced overall energy recovery since it does not allow direct steam utilization from the production wells. This study investigates an innovative single directional wellbore design working on Zero Mass Withdrawal (ZMW) concept for heat recovery and electricity generation. The simplified system analysis model solves for the overall process of reservoir thermal energy into electricity conversion rate based on the mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws. Dimensionless analysis shows the interplay among different subsystems at varying length and time scales: transport processes between wellbore and hot aquifer, binary power generation cycle, and heat rejection between the power generation system and the environment. Results are presented with a detailed engineering design for a single wellbore geothermal energy to electricity conversion system with discussions on how to reduce the LCOE for such systems in a systematic manner.


    Keywords: Energy; Engineering; Fluid-Flow; Reservoirs; Sustainability;

    Applications of Catalysts in Oil and Gas Industry
    Fatemeh Dehghani1;
    1JAHAD DANESHGHAHI UNIVERSITY, Omidieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 25
    Topic: 17

    A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a reaction, but is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. Most of all commercially produced chemical products involve catalysts at some stage in the process of their manufacture. Petroleum refining makes intensive use of catalysis for alkylation, catalytic cracking, naphtha reforming and steam reforming. Even the exhaust from the burning of fossil fuels is treated via catalysis: Catalytic converters, typically composed of platinum and rhodium, break down some of the more harmful byproducts of automobile exhaust. Some of the largest-scale chemicals are produced via catalytic oxidation, often using oxygen. Many other chemical products are generated by large-scale reduction, often via hydrogenation. Bulk polymers derived from ethylene and propylene and polyesters and polyamides are often prepared via catalysis. In this paper, we discuss about uses of catalysts in oil and gas industry.


    Comparison of Supercritical Water Oxidation and Supercritical Water Gasification
    William Jacoby1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI, Columbia, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 136
    Topic: 17

    This presentation: (1) reports on current investigation of SCWG of fecal sludge to produce fuel gas in a plug flow reactor; (2) reports on current investigation of SCWO of fecal sludge to produce heat in a plug flow reactor; (3) compares and contrasts technologies, focusing on mass balances, energy balances, feasibility, and reliability; (4) reports on current operation of pilot-scale SCWO unit, sited at Duke University, for neighborhood-scale treatment of fecal sludge in the third world.
    The research discussed is funded by the "Re-invent the Toilet Program" sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The goals of this program will also be discussed.


    Keywords: Combustion; Energy; Engineering; Environment; Fuels; Gas; Sustainability;

    Condition Based Maintenance of Wind Turbines by 24/7 Monitoring of Oil Quality and Additive Consumption: Identification of Critical Operation Conditions and Determination of the Next Oil Change
    Manfred Mauntz1; Jorn Peuser1;
    1CMC INSTRUMENTS GMBH, Eschborn, Germany (Deutschland);
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 81
    Topic: 17

    The demand for wind energy grows at exponential rates. At the same time, improving reliability and reduced operation and maintenance costs are the key priorities in wind turbine maintenance strategies. This paper provides information about a novel online oil condition monitoring system to recommend a solution to the mentioned priorities. The presented sensor system enables damage prevention of the wind turbine gear-box by an advanced warning time of critical operation conditions, and an enhanced oil exchange interval realized by a precise measurement of the electrical conductivity, the relative permittivity and the oil temperature. A new parameter, the WearSens® Index (WSi) is introduced. The mathematical model of the WSi combines all measured values and its gradients in one single parameter for a comprehensive monitoring to prevent wind turbines from damage. Furthermore, the WSi enables a long-term prognosis on the next oil change by 24/7 server data logging. Corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. First WSi results of an onshore wind turbine installation compared to traditional vibration monitoring are shown.


    Keywords: Lubricating; Oil; Sensors; Sustainability; Technology;

    Conversion of Liquid Combustible Wastes in the Filtration Combustion Mode with Divided Input of Reagents Under Conditions of a Moving Layer of an Inert Coolant
    Andrey Zaichenko1; Dmitry Podlesnyy1; Eugene Salgansky1;
    1IPCP RAS, Chernogolovka, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 377
    Topic: 17

    There exists in the world a large number of various types of liquid combustible wastes that are concentrated, and among which are spent organic solvents and various combustible-lubricating materials. When they are stored for a long time or improperly destroyed, very dangerous substances form from an ecological point of view.
    A new method of combustion/conversion of liquid combustible wastes is proposed in the filtration mode, when one of the reagents (liquid fuel or oxidizer gas) is supplied from the end of the reactor filled with a porous incombustible backfill (inert) and the other into the middle part. In this case, the inert, charged to the upper part of the reactor at room temperature, is heated in counter-current combustion products. At discharging of inert from the lower part of the reactor (and the equal volume is simultaneously added to the upper part, so that the bed in the reactor is kept constant), the inert heated in the upper part enters the lower part, where it gives heat to the gaseous reagent supplied from below.
    Thus, the inert is first discharged from the reactor in the cool condition, and the gaseous reactant is then supplied to the reaction zone at a high temperature. This procedure makes it possible to carry out the reaction with heat recovery, when the physical heat of the gaseous products is given off during the heat exchange of the porous material, and it heats the reactant supplied from the end of the reactor.


    Keywords: Combustion; Energy; Environment;

    Cybersecurity Implications for Sustainable Energy Production
    Peter Fuhr1;
    1OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, Oak Ridge, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 332
    Topic: 17

    Systems used throughout the energy delivery system supply chain incorporate a wide range of automation network designs. This ranges from the control systems used in extraction, processing storage and delivery of all manners of energy production. Similarly, energy management systems used in production apply advanced sensing and measurement technologies along with companion open- and closed-loop control systems implemented through ladder logic executed on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and associated computational engines. Operational efficiency of the system itself incorporates a communications network tying these (sometimes quite sophisticated) network elements. The need to update the hardware/software/firmware that constitutes this modern system may provide a pathway for malware to enter into the system perhaps via the cellular or IT network remote access connectivity. This presentation will review current (circa 2017) control system designs used in sustainable energy production, processing and transport, highlight potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities, and present DarkNet – a U.S. Department of Energy funded activity that is designed to significantly reduce the cybersecurity vulnerabilities within the energy delivery system supply chain.


    Keywords: Energy; Measurement; Sensors; Technology;

    Eco-Industrial Zones in the Context of Sustainability Development of Urban Areas
    Sonja Stefanov1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 202
    Topic: 17

    The industry is one of the main activities in the city and in many cities of the world and the dominant Industrial zones are the most significant morphological form of concentration of industrial facilities in the city and are concentrated industrial and business activity. Industrial parks combine activities related to energy and resource consumption, emissions, waste generation, economic benefits and regional development. The focus of this work is the path of transformation between the present and the vision of a sustainable city in the future. It examines the possibilities for?" ," Who should take action?" , " When you can change happen? " And " how much will influence these changes? The problem and the subject of research related to two related objects of research: the city and sustainable development. In this paper, the co-author's industrial symbiosis parks, modern tendencies of the spatial distribution of productive activities, circular economy, to attract leading corporations and open the way for new ventures while preserving the living environment in an urban area.


    Keywords: Engineering; Environment; Industry; Sustainability;

    Electricity Production Choices and Consequences: Part II
    Harold Dodds1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, Knoxville, United States;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 41
    Topic: 17

    This is an expanded and further elaborated version of the summit plenary presentation of the same title. With the world's population increasing from seven billion currently to approximately nine billion by the year 2040, achieving a healthy lifestyle for all people on earth will depend, in part, on the availability of affordable energy, especially electricity. This presentation considers the various choices, or options, for producing electricity and the consequences associated with each option. The options are fossil, renewables, and nuclear. The consequences associated with these three options are addressed in five different areas: economics, environmental effects, public health and safety, sustainability, and politics. All options are needed, but some options may be better than others when compared in the five areas.


    Keywords: Electric; Fuels;

    Evaluation of Subvention Schemes for Lignite Electricity Plants in the Aftermath of the Paris Agreement - 2015 - Part II
    Tamer Turna1;
    1YILDIRIM ENERGY INVESTMENTS INC, Maslak, Turkey;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 352
    Topic: 17

    This paper is an extension of the summit plenary presentation of the same title, and will provide a detailed evaluation of sustainability of the Lignite subvention policies, from an economic and environmental perspective. Other possibilities to solve the economic and social burden of the Lignite mining sector and related power plants will be explored in the framework of Turkey's controversial energy policies following COP 21 outcomes.


    Keywords: Sustainability; Power; Energy; Transformation; Turkey; Privatization; Paradigm; World Bank; IMF; Renewable; Cleaner Coal; Lignite; High Efficiency; Ultra Super Critical;

    Experimental Assessment of a Lysine Derivative Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Carbonate Rocks: Mechanistic and Core Displacement Analysis
    Alireza Rostami1; Abdolnabi Hashemi1; Mohammad Ali Takassi1; Amin Zadehnazari1;
    1PETROLEUM UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (PUT), Ahwaz, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 97
    Topic: 17

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from carbonate reservoirs is of great challenge due to the complex geology originated from high rock heterogeneity and viscous fingering phenomenon during a displacement process. One of the highly applicable EOR approaches is the utilization of surfactant especially for the aims of foam generation, wettability alteration, emulsion stability and well stimulation in petroleum industry. The Dominant mechanisms of surfactant for increasing oil production are wettability alteration of reservoir rock and interfacial tension (IFT) reduction of oil-water system resulting in higher sweep efficiency by diminishing the adverse capillary forces existing in the porous media and easier flow of the residual oil toward the producing wells. In the present study, (S) 2-amino-6-dodecanamidohexanoic acidas an amino acid-based surfactant, is proposed in order to evaluate an EOR application. Firstly, the pH, density and viscosity of the surfactant solutions were measured regarding the impact of salt concentration. Afterwards, IFT and wettability tests were conducted by means of pendent drop and sessile drop methods, respectively. The impact of salt concentration was also examined on the IFT behavior. Moreover, recovery potential of the proposed amino acid-based surfactant via core displacement test compared with a traditional brine injection process. Consequently, it is found out that increasing salt concentration has an increasing effect on both IFT trend and the values of critical micelle concentration. Additionally, change in carbonate rock wettability from oil-wet to neutral-wet was also observed. Finally, it is proved that surfactant flooding can improve the oil recovery factor more than the time at which water injection is used.


    Keywords: Energy; Environment; Fuels; Oil; Permeability; Petroleum; Production; Reservoirs; Technology; WaterInjection;

    Experimental Investigation of Different Immiscible Water Alternating Gas (IWAG) Schemes towards Optimization of Displacement Efficiency
    Abdollah Esmaeili1; Mohammad Abdalla Ayoub2;
    1NATIONAL IRANIAN SOUTH OIL COMPANY (NISOC) - NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (NIOC), Omiodieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran); 2UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia, Malaysia;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 15
    Topic: 17

    The world continues to rely heavily on hydrocarbon resources for energy. While the demand for these resources is steadily rising, the discovery of new reserves is becoming more challenging. Therefore new ways of enhancing recovery from matured and producing reservoirs must be found in order to recover more oil from these reservoirs. Recently, there has been greater interest in enhanced oil recovery techniques that can improve overall recovery by increasing both the displacement efficiency and the sweep efficiency. This study seeks to investigate, at laboratory conditions, the improvement in ultimate oil recovery when immiscible water alternating gas (IWAG) injection is use as an enhanced recovery method. Synthetic brine simulating formation water from offshore Malaysia will be prepared and three WAG injection tests each proceeded by either water or gas injection will be carried out on three sandstone core plugs in the laboratory. The expected results from this project will show the amount of additional recovery of original oil in place (OOIP) using IWAG injection after secondary water or gas injection.


    Gasification of Coal Dust in Filtration Combustion Mode
    Eugene Salgansky1; Andrey Zaichenko1; Dmitry Podlesnyy1;
    1IPCP RAS, Chernogolovka, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 375
    Topic: 17

    Gasifiers of dense layer, working in filtration combustion mode with superadiabatic heating, allow the use of high-ash and high moisture kinds of solid fuels to generate energy with high environmental friendliness and high efficiency of the process. However, the disadvantage of this type of gasifiers is that it is relatively low productivity. The goal of the work is to increase productivity.
    In the present study an experimental study of steam-air gasification of coal grades K was carrying out. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a vertical continuous reactor, 66 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The experiments were performed on powdered coal with fraction 100-160 microns. In steam-air gasification of coal molar ratio steam/oxygen in the gaseous oxidant was equal to 3. The average consumption of the pulverized fuel in the experiments was 0.3 g/s.
    Chromel-alumel thermocouples were used to measure the temperature. The gaseous products composition was analyzed using GC-CRYSTAL 5000 chromatograph.
    A new method is proposed for gasification of a powdered fuel in filtration regime with continuous injection of fuel. The fuel is supplied suspended with the flow of oxidant gas, whereas the gas flow filters through a porous bed of large particles making a heat recovery medium. In the course of the experimental studies a principal possibility of pulverized fuel gasification in the fixed bed reactor with production of gaseous products containing up to 25% by volume of syngas was shown. It has been shown that increasing the steam content in the gaseous oxidant leads to combustion temperature reduction, lower carbon monoxide content and increased hydrogen content in the gaseous products. This method also provides means for a substantial enhancement of the specific throughput of a gasifier reactor compared to a vertical packed bed reactor.


    Keywords: Combustion; Energy; Fuels; Gas; Technology; Coal dust; Gasification; Syngas; Filtration Combustion;

    High-Pressure, Density-Driven Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas
    William Jacoby1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI, Columbia, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 137
    Topic: 17

    High-Pressure, Density-driven Separation (HDS) technology was invented and reduced to practice at the University of Missouri. Research, development and commercialization activities continue at Mizzou in conjunction with Liquid Carbonic LLC. HDS technology has the potential to be a powerful weapon against climate change. Based on experimentation, thermodynamic analyses, and modeling, our estimated operating cost is about $15 per metric ton of CO2 removed, which is less than one-third current state-of-the-art technologies. We have defined a volumetric efficiency metric that, at the time of abstract submittal, had increased nearly 300-fold relative to our original (published) experiments. The HDS itself has no moving parts and, for a given separation rate, its dimension continues to shrink as we optimize performance. Therefore, capital costs will also be low. We will also report on applications of HDS technology for upgrading fuel gasses containing CO2, as well as for H2 separations, all without membranes.


    Keywords: Treating flue gases; CO2 ; Capturing and processing CO2 ; Carbon capture and storage; Pre-combustion capture Post-combustion capture; climate change; global warming; new sustainable technologies;

    Increasing Efficiency of Gas Injection into Gas Cap of a Sandstone Oil Reservoir to Improve Oil Recovery
    Abdollah Esmaeili1;
    1NATIONAL IRANIAN SOUTH OIL COMPANY (NISOC) - NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (NIOC), Omiodieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 14
    Topic: 17

    In this paper, according to actual condition of this oil field, we will investigate about gas injection to find an optimized gas injection process for this oil field. Recovery efficiency of this EOR method will be tested experimentally using several cores of this sandstone reservoir. Reservoir rock and fluid properties changing during this process will be investigated. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests based on core flooding tests on sandstones will be designed. Totally, this research will be done in two sections. In phase 1, called problem statement, we will try to get enough data and information about this field to know the problems in this field related to this research topic. In phase 2, called finding solution methods, solution methods for solving these problems will be investigated.


    Investigation of Carbonated Water Injection in an Oil Reservoir to Enhance Oil Recovery
    Abdollah Esmaeili1;
    1NATIONAL IRANIAN SOUTH OIL COMPANY (NISOC) - NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (NIOC), Omiodieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 13
    Topic: 17

    In this paper, according to actual condition of an oil field, a new enhanced oil recovery method called carbonated water injection (CWI) was designed and tested for this oil field. In carbonated water, CO2 exists as a dissolved phase as opposed to a free phase, eliminating the problems of gravity segregation and poor sweep efficiency, which are characteristics of a typical CO2 injection project. In fact, both viscosity and density of water increase as a result of the dissolution of CO2 in water. Recovery efficiency of this EOR method was tested experimentally using several cores of this sandstone reservoir. Reservoir rock and fluid properties changing during this process were investigated. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests based on core flooding tests on sandstones were designed. The results show that carbonated water injection (CWI), compared to conventional water injection, improves oil recovery in both secondary (pre-water flood) and tertiary (post-water flood) injection modes.


    Low Cost Printed Sensors for the Energy Industry Sustainability
    Marissa Morales Rodriguez1;
    1OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, Oak Ridge, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 76
    Topic: 17

    There is a growing need for low cost, time sensitive and real time monitoring of cyber, physical and chemical parameters for health and fault monitoring of the electrical grid assets and its environment. Current technologies don’t offer the capability to access data remotely, on a timely manner and cost effectively. Advancement in additive manufacturing and printed electronics technologies are growing fast, taking the 3D printing industry rapidly from prototyping to manufacturing. Here, we present low cost manufacturing using printed electronics of sensors, mobile and fixed, to provide ground truth in an industrial environment. Such sensors can be operated wireless and provide continuous real time data and information to make decision about the state of the system under interrogation. Printed sensors technologies combined with decision making algorithms can provide a cost effective solution to the sustainability of the energy industry and its integration of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).


    Keywords: Energy; Industry; Materials; Measurement; Sensors; Technology;

    Management and Saving of the Electricity in Household in Kosovo - A Case Study
    Mehmet Qelaj1; Justina Shiroka Pula2; Violeta Nushi2; Musa Rizaj2;
    1MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, Prishtina, Kosovo; 2UNIVERSITY OF PRISHTINA ''HASAN PRISHTINA'', Prishtina, Kosovo;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 130
    Topic: 17

    The main objective of this research paper is to find the best ways for electricity saving, based on the energy efficiency measurements and alternative heating solutions. Several energy efficiency methods have been analyzed such as lighting types to be used, alternative heating solutions beside electricity (thermal energy, wood, liquefied petroleum gas, coal, pellets, etc.), house isolation and biomass.The highlighted benefits are the preservation of high comfort in the residential spaces and decreasing electricity bills. The recommendations and conclusions for reducing the energy costs and usage are given based on the energy efficiency measurements (MEE) and calculations.


    Keywords: Electric; Energy; Engineering; Environment; Oil; Utilization; Household; Savings

    Measuring Quantities of Flared Gas in Middle East
    Irene Mabafokeng Masitha1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND (WITS), Johannesburg, South Africa (zuid Afrika);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 305
    Topic: 17

    One of the challenges involved in addressing environmental aspects of flaring and venting is identifying how much gas is being released. All oilfields contain associated gas. Much like the same way that bubbles appear when the cap is removed from a bottle of carbonated drink, the associated gas is released when oil is brought up from the deep rock strata in which it is found. The proportion of associated gas to oil (the so-called GOR or Gas Oil Ratio) can vary significantly between oilfields. Moreover, in some oilfields, the GOR increases as more and more oil is produced, while in others it can reduce with time. Consequently, the amount of gas which must be dealt with can vary dramatically from year to year between oilfields and even within a specific oilfield. Some or all of this associated gas may have to be flared or vented. Oil and gas production systems can be complex. The gas eventually reaching the flare or vent can come by means of a gathering system from a variety of sources - pressure relief systems, maintenance related depressurizing systems, etc. Many of these systems supply gas to the gathering system, often only sporadically. A major difficulty in managing flaring and venting is identifying exactly how much gas is coming from the various sources that are contributing to the overall volume flared and vented. There is debate within the industry regarding the extent to which it is possible to measure gas flow rates accurately under such varied conditions with the measuring devices presently available on the market.


    Keywords: Energy; Gas; Oil; Reservoirs;

    Minimizing Gas Flaring and Enhancing Condensate Recovery from Gas Condensate Reservoirs through Gas Injection
    Pearl Mamanti Sealiete1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND (WITS), Johannesburg, South Africa (zuid Afrika);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 304
    Topic: 17

    In this paper, gas injection will be studied in a gas condensate reservoir to increase the recovery factor, and moreover the capability of different injection gases (CO2, N2, CH4 and separator gas) will be compared through different injection schemes. The injection schemes that will be considered are: different injection rates, different injection pressures and different injection durations. We think that the response of the reservoir in different cases will be different but that injection of all of them can increase the condensate recovery. As many parameters can affect the decision of selecting the injection scheme, other than the gas and condensate recovery factor, doing an economical evaluation is inevitable to take them all into account and determine the best one.
    In this paper, the efficiency of different schemes of gas injection and gas recycling in condensate recovery from a gas condensate reservoir, through compositional simulation has been studied and compared. The effect of changing injection rate, injection pressure and injection duration have been investigated by three injection gases (N2, CO2, CH4) and gas recycling. The appropriate and optimum case can be selected considering the results of the simulation work and doing an economical evaluation, taking into account all the parameters such as: the price of the gas and condensate, the price of the injection gases and the cost of the facilities needed in each scheme with regard to the present level.


    Keywords: Energy; Engineering; Environment; Gas; Oil; Petroleum; Reservoirs;

    Models for Assessing the Creation of Landfill Pollutants (LFG)
    Sonja Stefanov1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 158
    Topic: 17

    The paper will be presented the most commonly used mathematical models for calculation of CH4 emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) is produced by microbial decomposition of waste and takes place in several stages. LFG is composed of CH4, CO2, and non-methane organic compounds that often contain dangerous and volatile organic substances. Assessment of creation and LFG emissions is important with respect to the significant contribution to emissions of greenhouse gasses, as well as for the design of the system for collecting landfill gas, determine the number of wells, pipe size, type and power of the gas compressor, etc. Also, according to the Protocol on the European register of pollutant release and transfer of substances (Protocol on pollutant release and transfer register) fall into landfill facilities that can monitor the discharge of pollutants. Assessment of the creation of LFG can be made by using mathematical models and methods for direct measurements.


    Keywords: Gas; Production; Sustainability;

    Nonuniformity of Filtration Combustion Front of Multicomponent Fuel Mixtures
    Dmitry Podlesnyy1; Eugene Salgansky1; Andrey Zaichenko1;
    1IPCP RAS, Chernogolovka, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 376
    Topic: 17

    Upon studying the processes of filtration combustion in a porous system containing a solid fuel and a porous incombustible material with forced filtration of a gaseous oxidant, there are a number of cases where the appearance and development of an instability of the combustion front can be observed. One of the reasons for the instability of the plane combustion front is a violation of the homogeneity of the gaseous oxidant filtration due to the burning out of the fuel from the initial mixture. The instability can also be determined by the difference in the filtration properties of the starting materials and solid combustion products.
    One way to stabilize the combustion front is to use an inclined rotating reactor. The type of reactor used allows the merits of rotating furnaces (in particular, mixing of raw materials) to be combined with the advantages of filtration combustion in a dense layer - effective heat recovery in the combustion zone and, as a consequence, high process efficiency. In an inclined rotating reactor the combustion process can be stabilized by suppressing the instabilities of the flat combustion front by mixing the material. In this connection, the work is devoted to an experimental study of the stability of the filtration combustion front for a carbon-containing solid fuel in an inclined rotating reactor.
    Thus, experimental studies of multicomponent fuel mixtures combustion have been carried out at different inclinations of the reactor, and the boundaries of the steady flow of the process for each of the angles were determined, depending on the percentage of the fine fraction, with a fuel content of 50%. The boundaries of the steady flow of the process were determined depending on the percentage of the fine fraction, the fuel content in the mixture being 30, 50 and 70% with the angle of inclination of the reactor of 45 degrees.


    Keywords: Combustion; Energy; Fuels;

    Polymer Gel Design, Production And Injection Into Oil Producing Interval Of A Sandstone Reservoir To Prevent Excess Water Production
    Abdollah Esmaeili1;
    1NATIONAL IRANIAN SOUTH OIL COMPANY (NISOC) - NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (NIOC), Omiodieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 16
    Topic: 17

    In this research, according to actual condition of this oil field, a suitable polymer will be designed and built, then, its optimum composition with least amount of additives, best thermal resistance property, resistant to salt and acid and long life time will be determined using rheological tests as a standard method to specify polymer gel properties. Finally, performance of this optimized polymer gel will tested experimentally using several cores of this sandstone reservoir. Rheological properties of polymer gel and its relationship to reservoir rock permeability will be investigated. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests based on rheological, swelling and core flooding tests on sandstones will be designed. So, by deriving mathematical relationships, effect of concentration and type of polymer and ratio of networking factor concentration to polymer on total visco-elastic properties and three dimensional network parameters of polymer gel will be stated.


    Proposing New Technological Solutions for Produced Water Management in an Oil Field
    Abdollah Esmaeili1;
    1NATIONAL IRANIAN SOUTH OIL COMPANY (NISOC) - NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (NIOC), Omiodieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 17
    Topic: 17

    In this research, according to actual condition of this oil field, technical produced water management methods will be designed and tested for this oil field. These methods will be tested experimentally using several cores of this sandstone reservoir. Reservoir rock and fluid properties changing during this process will be investigated. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests based on produced water tests on sandstones will be designed. Totally, this research will be done in two sections. In phase 1, called problem statement, we will try to get enough data and information about this field to know the problems in this field related to this research topic. In phase 2, called finding solution methods, solution methods for solving these problems will be investigated.


    Keywords: Energy; Oil; Petroleum; Reservoirs;

    Reactor Safety for Lead or Lead-Bismuth (LBE) Cooled Reactors-Fuel-Coolant Interactions
    Teodora Retegan1;
    1CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Gothenburg, Sweden;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 86
    Topic: 17

    The most widely used reactor type in the world is the light-water reactor (LWR) where two types are more common: PWR and BWR (pressure and boiling water reactors), along with Canada Deuterium Uranium reactor CANDU, gas-cooled reactors (AGR & Magnox), light water graphite reactor (RBMK & EGP), fast nuclear reactor (FBR) – Russia.
    At European level a collaborative effort supported by the European commission and leading European research institutes and industries was started to bring advanced fuel cycles and the P&T strategy together in order to investigate its economic and technical feasibility. The exploratory research done in the field and the launch of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP) in 2007 lead to a joined effort from the European nuclear fission research community to issue a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) that describes the roadmap towards sustainable nuclear fission energy. Here, the SNE-TP community identifies the sodium fast reactor technology as the reference but also highlights the need for the development of an alternative track with lead or gas cooling. In addition, the need for R&D activities in support of accelerator driven systems (ADS) was stressed to allow the demonstration of ADS technology by the construction of the first ADS Demo facility (MYRRHA).
    With regard to alternative fast reactor technologies as described in the SRA, lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) systems are very promising in meeting the Gen IV requirements in terms of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability and proliferation resistance & physical protection. This assessment is based on inherent properties of the reactor coolant and on design choices made.
    Reactor safety with regard to fuel-coolant interactions is an important step in the feasibility and safety assessment of such technologies. Theoretical and empirical approach will be further presented both for lead and lead-bismuth interaction with the nuclear fuel, in this case with UO2 and MOX fuel.


    Keywords: Energy; Fuels; Radiation;

    Scale up Heterogeneity and Recovery Performance from Core to Field Scale for an Oil Sandstone Reservoir
    Abdollah Esmaeili1;
    1NATIONAL IRANIAN SOUTH OIL COMPANY (NISOC) - NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (NIOC), Omiodieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 18
    Topic: 17

    In this research, according to actual condition of this oil field, we will study this reservoir behavior and try to find a relationship between reservoir properties in scales with other scales. Heterogeneity and Recovery efficiency will be tested experimentally using several cores of this sandstone reservoir. Reservoir rock and fluid properties changing during this process will be investigated. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests based on core flooding tests on sandstone's will be designed. Totally, this research will be done in two sections. In phase 1, called problem statement, we will try to get enough data and information about this field to know the problems in this field related to this research topic. In phase 2, called finding solution methods, solution methods for solving these problems will be investigated.


    Synergistic Opportunities Between Nuclear Energy and the Oil and Gas Industry
    Wesley Williams1;
    1LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY, Baton Rouge, United States;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 124
    Topic: 17

    There are many potential collaboration areas between the traditionally isolated (or competitive) industries of nuclear energy and petroleum. Examples of overlapping interests and areas that can benefit from existing operational and engineering expertise are many. Deep borehole waste storage of nuclear waste materials has returned to the forefront of research due to the collapse of the Yucca Mountain Project. Deep borehole storage can benefit from knowledge developed in the drilling and completion of oil and gas wells. Likewise there is a potential to use spent fuel as a heat source for an enhanced oil recovery technique for heavy crude reservoirs. Furthermore, there are many potential futuristic concepts for nuclear reactors that could utilize capabilities of both industries to make safer and more sustainable energy production techniques. Offshore floating or jack-up nuclear power stations have been proposed, however, these concepts could be further enhanced by combining the facilities with permanent deep borehole waste storage fields under the seafloor. In a similar fashion, nuclear reactors could be placed and operated in the bottom of the deep wells either onshore or offshore. This would combine the reactor with its final repository. The presentation will discuss some of these creative ideas with the intent of breaking down preconceived notions that block productive collaborations between two of our most important energy sources. It is hoped that interests will be sparked to pursue further collaborative projects and research.


    Keywords: Drilling; Energy; Engineering; Environment; Oil; Petroleum;

    The Effect of Alpha-Irradiation from Enriched Uranium on the Leaching Properties of PTFE
    Jacoba Badenhorst1; Henning Krieg2;
    1NECSA, Pretoria, South Africa (zuid Afrika); 2NORTH WEST UNIVERSITY, Potchefstroom, South Africa (zuid Afrika);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 240
    Topic: 17

    In the uranium enrichment plants of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation SOC Ltd (Necsa), sintered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters were used to remove gas entrained solid particles, in order to prevent blocking of the isotope separating elements. When these plants were decommissioned and dismantled, the filters which mostly contained solid uranium fluoride and uranium oxyfluoride compounds and compressor ring dust, were broken into pieces, put into metal drums, and stored. This waste contains enriched uranium and can’t be disposed of at the current disposal site (Vaalputs), which only accepts low and intermediate level waste. Initial attempts, directly after removal from the enrichment plants, to decontaminate these filters using various aqueous solutions, were unsuccessful probably because of the known non-wettability of PTFE surfaces. However, recent attempts to leach the absorbed enriched uranium were successful. This resulted in a study to determine the effect of mainly á-irradiation from the enriched uranium on the morphology of PTFE. A Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP), a general purpose radiation transport code modelling the interaction of radiation with materials that simulate nuclear processes, was used to determine the rate of PTFE radiolysis. The results confirmed that the dose rate received from mainly the á-particles (97 %) during the storage period had caused significant structural damage to the PTFE depending on the enrichment grade and the amount of uranium on the filters. To confirm the modelling data, analytical techniques, including micro X-ray tomography, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the morphology changes in the PTFE structure of the research samples. Experimental results indicated that the crystallinity increased while the molecular weight of the PTFE decreased. This could be attributed to the radiation induced degradation of the PTFE by the absorbed enriched uranium.


    Keywords: Radiation;

    Thermodynamic Stability of Industrial Chemical Processes using Lyapunov Function Analysis
    Vijay Tangde1; Anil A. Bhalekar1;
    1RTM NAGPUR UNIVERSITY, Nagpur, India;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 263
    Topic: 17

    The role of thermodynamics in pro tably running an industrial process is well known. Among several issues, some of the basic ones are the thermodynamics of the process under consideration and, economical and sustainable energy management. Thus while attending to these aspects a crucial issue is that of maintaining the stability of irreversible processes. There are several ways to handle this aspect and the basic of all of them is the one based on thermodynamics. For this purpose, one of us (AAB) has already developed a Comprehensive Thermodynamic Theory of Stability of Irreversible Processes (CTTSIP). Within the framework of CTTSIP, we have investigated the thermodynamic stability of some industrial chemical processes. In this presentation, applications of CTTSIP to industrial chemical processes have been presented. The CTTSIP is based on the Lyapunov's second method of stability of motion which involves de ning the thermodynamic Lyapunov function (Ls), constructed using entropy production rates on real and perturbed trajectories. In the method adopted, the entropy production rate (Ls) and thermodynamic Lyapunov function (Ls) are expanded in Taylor series in terms of perturbation coordinates. Herein, the thermodynamic stability of industrial chemical processes, namely, sulfur trioxide synthesis (Contact Process) and ammonia synthesis (Haber Process) have been studied against the perturbation in temperature of the reaction bed. The behavior of the computed time rate change of Lyapunov function provides the desired information about the stability. Study reveal the regions of stability, asymptotic thermodynamic stability, stability under constantly acting small disturbances and instability. The computations were carried out using the software Mathematica 11.1" from Wolfram Research, USA.


    Keywords: Industry; Optimization;

    Thermodynamic Stability of Irreversible Processes Based on Lyapunov Function Analysis
    Anil A. Bhalekar1; Vijay Tangde1;
    1RTM NAGPUR UNIVERSITY, Nagpur, India;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 145
    Topic: 17

    In the preceding paper [1] we have formulated a theory of thermodynamic stability which is an extension to irreversible processes of the Gibbs-Duhem theory of the stability of equilibrium states. This theory involves the concept of virtual displacement in the reverse direction on the real trajectory. In this paper the comprehensive thermodynamic theory of stability of irreversible processes (CTTSIP) has been presented that is based on the celebrated Lyapunov's second method of stability of motion in which we have defined the thermodynamic Lyapunov function using the rate of entropy production both on the perturbed and unperturbed trajectories. From the sign definiteness of the thermodynamic Lyapunov function and the behaviour of its time rate of change it gets established that all thermodynamically describable irreversible processes are thermodynamically stable and out of them the processes under the condition of constancy of U,V; H,p; T,V; T,p; etc. get established as of thermodynamically asymptotic stability and are expected to be of exponentially asymptotic stability too.


    Keywords: Energy; Materials; Sustainability;

    Thermodynamic Stability of Irreversible Processes: A Gibbs-Duhem Type Theory and the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics
    Anil A. Bhalekar1; Bjarne Andresen2;
    1RTM NAGPUR UNIVERSITY, Nagpur, India; 2UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN, COPENHAGEN, Denmark;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 144
    Topic: 17

    The Gibbs-Duhem theory of stability of equilibrium states has been extended to determine the stability of irreversible processes. The basic concept of virtual displacement in the reverse direction on the real trajectory, which is involved in the celebrated Gibbs-Duhem theory, has been used. This establishes that all thermodynamically describable processes are thermodynamically stable. This outcome led us to reformulate the fourth law of thermodynamics. Moreover, our present investigations illustrate the basis of the universal inaccessibility principle formulated earlier by one of the present authors (AAB).


    Keywords: Energy; Materials; Sustainability;

    Towards Green and Safe Sodium Batteries
    Martin Mansson1; Ola Kenji Forslund1;
    1KTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Kista Stockholm, Sweden;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 257
    Topic: 17

    While Li-ion batteries are considered the main candidate for mobile energy storage applications, compounds based on lithium's heavier cousin, sodium (Na) have recently started to receive a lot of attention. One reason is that our Li-reserves are limited and to realize future electric vehicles we might have to reconsider the Li-ion technology. Na has indeed many advantages over Li e.g. Na is one of the most abundant elements in nature (earth's crust as well as in normal seawater of our great oceans), which makes it about 5 times cheaper than Li. Further, Na-ion batteries can also be much less toxic and easier to recycle. In many ways the NaxCoO2 compound is a Na-analog of the most common Li-ion battery electrode material LixCoO2. Hence, understanding Na-ion diffusion mechanisms in NaxCoO2 would seem a logical first step. In this talk I will show that neutron scattering is a crucial technique for the understanding of these materials. I will also summarize our recent results that reveal how the ion-diffusion process is intrinsically linked to a series of subtle structural transitions along with novel and functional possibilities for tuning battery performance using lattice-strains.


    Keywords: Characterisation; Energy; Materials; Nanomaterials; SecondaryBattery; Sustainability;